The process of editing the material, during which the images and sounds that will give the film its final form are chosen and combined in multiple ways. Editing is part of the post-production, which is scheduled after the end of the shooting.
A shot used to cover a break in time, or give any other solution. It guarantees narrative continuity.
Everything is filmed in such a way, that the viewer has the impression that the action unfolds without interruptions. There needs to be consistency between the characters, the setting and the lights (their positioning and direction) from one shot to the next.
AXIS OF ACTION (180-DEGREE RULE)
One of the basic rules of classical filmmaking: The axis is the imaginary line that passes through the center of action connecting the actors, and according to the rule, the camera must always be placed on the one side of the axis of action, so that the viewer won’t be disoriented. The camera moves within the 180-degrees angle defined by the axis of action, otherwise there is always the danger that the viewer won’t understand what is happening on screen. The same rule applies to moving objects (the camera should be kept to the one side of the trajectory of the movement).
Between shots of the same subject occurring in succession, the camera should move at least 30 degrees, otherwise the viewer might think this is an intense jump-cut (the case of jumping forward in time or having a camera movement).
The characters’ gaze must remain fixed, according to their height, even if they don’t appear in the same fame. For example, if a character is taller than another, the shortest must look up and the shortest should look down.
CROSS CUT / PARALLEL EDITING
Technique: The combination of two or more scenes. Goal: The alternation of scenes often connotes a very important connection between them.
A gradual merging of the end of one shot and beginning of another. This merge is produced by the superimposition of a fade-out onto a fade-in of equal length. Goal: Dissolve is used in order to give a slow, relaxed way to connect two shots. It is recommended for the editing of different shots in an opening scene, as well as for the continuity editing, when we want to show that we have moved in time and space.
A shot which begins in darkness and gradually lightens to full brightness.
A shot which begins in full brightness and gradually becomes black. Goal: Fading in/out is usually used in order to demostrate that a certain period of time has passed between the sequences.
Technique: A single recording of an entire dramatized scene that defines the relationship between the characters and their environment. Goal: It is shot, on the one hand, for safety reasons and, on the other hand, to facilitate the editing of all the individual shots that are related with the same scene.
The end of a shot logically and visually leads to the beginning of the next one. For example, when a character exits a frame from the right side of the screen, logically leads to the shot of the same character that enters the screen from the left side.
SHOT / REVERSE SHOT
Two or more shots that are edited together and usually show two people talking to each other. Technique: Master shot of the two characters → Close Up to one of the two characters → Close Up to the second character.
1. Why do you think that these shots were connected in this way? What does this specific connection say for the story? 2. What is the duration of each shot? 3. Is the interchange slow or fast? 4. Does the director use cuts or transition?
1. What kind of clues does this movie clip give us regarding the role of each character in the film, and how do you think they will evolve? 2. In your opinion, what will be their role in the plot development?
Narrate your own story based on the trailer you have just watched. (Print)
How many scenes have you watched?
Which editing technique would you use each time the scene needs to change?